JAKARTA. Indonesia is one country that has a high commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Before the Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen, Denmark, Indonesia has set a target of reducing emissions by a quarter of the existing level until 2020. This has consequences on the need to develop energy efficiency in various sectors of development and people’s lives.
Efforts for achieving efficient usage of energy in Indonesia is facing a tough challenge. Energy Economical Statistical Data of Ministry Energy, Resources and Minerals (ESDM) illustrates that the growth elasticity of energy consumption to gross domestic growth (GDP) on average in the range of 1991-2005 reached 2.02. The figure shows that GDP growth remains dependent on huge growth in energy consumption (energy elasticity expected to be less than 1, which indicates a high level of efficiency).
Although the intensity of energy useage is relatively high, but the energy consumption per capita in Indonesia is relatively low. Indonesia’s energy intensity index reached 470, while the energy consumption per capita is 0,467. Compare that to Japan, the energy intensity of 92.8 while energy consumption per capita her was 4.14. The figure convinces that the use of energy in Indonesia is not productive and evenly distributed.
To develop energy efficiency, in addition to foster economic growth, Indonesia should also reduce the growth of energy consumption. Reduction of energy consumption is by doing energy efficiency, conservation and diversification measures. This requires the role of the parties widely, particularly sectors that consume energy on a large scale.
Energy efficiency measures are very important so that limited resources can be used for the benefit of society, especially for people who are not fortunate to get energy services. In the context of climate change, energy efficiency measures are part of a joint commitment in reducing the rate of global emissions, of which Indonesia is one of the biggest emitters.
Currently, the electricity sector is the backbone of the engine of national economic growth. This sector became one of the biggest consumers of fossil energy, where 38% of total global carbon dioxide emissions come from the electricity sector.
The Indonesian government realized that the energy efficiency agenda is the urgent one. This agenda will not run without the support of electricity consumers to make savings on the demand side, both industry scale and households.
This effort is also not an easy thing. The complexity in the development of energy-saving involves structural issues such as the integration of energy efficiency policy in the general framework of national energy development and low investment in the electricity sector.
Meanwhile, energy saving in the industrial sector also requires large investments in the technological changing that are more environmentally friendly. People lifestyle and culture that is still wasteful of energy is one of the issues that need to be addressed. Energy-saving measures could not be achieved simply by relying on the role of government alone, but it has to be a community movement to promote energy-efficient lifestyle as part of their culture. It also needs to be supported through education for the promotion of energy-saving products which are able to reach the wider community.
Source: Energy Saving and Water National Team