The manufacturing industry in Indonesia is the biggest energy users compared to other sectors, such as transport, household and commercial sectors. This sector energy consumption (including fuel) almost half of all the nation’s energy needs.
Population manufacturing industry (manufacturing) in the category of medium and large industries is estimated at more than 25,000, divided into 23 classifications International Standard Industry Classification 1990 (ISIC 1990). The industry group with the largest populations include food and beverage industry, textile industry, garment industry, and furniture. The population of these four industry sectors together has even reached 50 percent of the entire population of the industry. Energy Intensity Of the 23 industry sector classification above, only six industrial sectors that consume about 80 percent of the energy, while the rest (17 sectors) consume only about 20 percent of total energy needs in this sector. Interestingly, of the six sectors mentioned above, as well as the largest energy users, they also contribute to gross domestic product (GDP / GDP) is very dominant, reaching approximately 50 percent of the total value added of the manufacturing industry. In addition to a great level of energy consumption, energy intensity of six sectors is also very high, reaching almost twice the rate of energy intensity 17 other sectors. The above indicators show a low level of energy efficiency in six industrial sectors above provide ample room for energy efficiency improvements that can reduce total energy consumption. In turn he will be able to leave a positive impact on the value added contribution of the manufacturing sector. Parameter energy intensity is the unit of measurement of energy use efficiency. Energy efficiency can be measured with three different approaches, which is thermodynamically (Joules, BTU), physical units (kg), or in monetary units which are also known as energy intensity. Indicators of energy efficiency in the thermodynamic and physical unit become less effective if used on a macro-scale applications compared with units of energy intensity (barrel / USD). Energy intensity parameter used by some developed countries to monitor energy use or energy use antarsatu sector compares with other sectors. This parameter can also be used to compare the efficiency of energy use between regions or countries. Analysis of energy intensity in the manufacturing sector in the top six can explain the huge influence of the factors that shape the energy intensity as well as closely related to energy consumption. The determining factors include factors related and less related to energy efficiency, or commonly referred to as structural factors. The results of the analysis with the above approach shows, changes in energy consumption of most of the sub-sectors that are in the group of six industrial sectors above are influenced by factors related to energy efficiency. The industry sector, among others, food preservation industry, knitting, paper, cement, chemicals upstream, and steel. Meanwhile, the sub-sectors that have a change of energy consumption is influenced by factors that are not related to energy efficiency only covers a little subsectors, such as the pulp industry and the glass industry and glass. The results of the analysis using the energy intensity indicator above shows that the opportunity to make improvements to the level of energy use through demand-side approach is still very wide open. Therefore, the policies of both technical and fiscal-who can stimulate the industries to take steps that lead to the improvement of the indicator above-needs to be done as part of energy policy. Energy policy that is focused only on the supply side (supply side) will be the same as filling a leaky bucket. Although the type and number of charging plus, leaky buckets will never be filled with water. Conclusion Emphasis total energy consumption in the manufacturing sector should be one of the top energy policy on the demand side (demand side) among many energy policies have focused on the supply side (supply side). Little emphasis on energy demand in the sector is the biggest user (manufacturing sector) will have an impact on a large overall savings as well as an increase in value added contribution of this sector. Increasing the value added generated in turn will provide an additional budget to the government. The additional budget would be used to improve and guarantee access to energy for the whole society. Access to energy above may include the availability of cheap infrastructure for the distribution of energy to the lowest layer in the community who have a low level of purchasing power. And, finally able to suppress the price of energy for the layer that is worthy of the energy security of the country. Yales Vivadinar, researcher at the Energy Policy and Sustainability Research Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, FT-UI Source: Compass 12 April 2012